The Metabolic Syndrome
Also called "Syndrome X", "insulin resistance syndrome", Reaven's syndrome, and CHAOS
Is the Diagnosis of Metabolic Syndrome Useful?

In 2005, Kahn et. al.(1) published a meta analysis of studies and
definitions of the Metabolic Syndrome in which they argue that the
syndrome is basically an imprecise and essentially valueless diagnosis and
that physicians should instead focus on a patient's individual risk factors
for heart disease, diabetes, hypertension and other illnesses typically
lumped into "metabolic syndrome".

1: The Metabolic Syndrome: Time for a Critical Appraisal
Joint statement from the American Diabetes Association and the
European Association for the Study of Diabetes
Richard Kahn, PHD, John Buse, MD, PHD, Ele Ferrannini, MD and Michael
Stern, MD
Diabetes Care September 2005 vol. 28 no. 9 2289-2304

Metabolic Syndrome is the name used to describe
a group of metabolic problems or defects that
commonly occur clustered together in people. The
American Heart Association lists these metabolic
defects as:

"Abdominal obesity (excessive fat tissue in
and around the abdomen)
Atherogenic dyslipidemia (blood fat disorders
— high triglycerides, low HDL cholesterol and
high LDL cholesterol — that foster plaque
buildups in artery walls)
Elevated blood pressure
Insulin resistance or glucose intolerance (the
body can’t properly use insulin or blood
Prothrombotic state (e.g., high fibrinogen or
plasminogen activator inhibitor–1 in the
Proinflammatory state (e.g., elevated
C-reactive protein in the blood)"

-Source: American Heart Association Website
Metabolic syndrome is considered important because it dramatically elevates risk for
heart attack and diabetes and because these risks can be reduced with weight
loss, exercise, quitting tobacco and reduction of consumption of saturated fat,
trans-fat and cholesterol.

Metabolic syndrome is usually diagnosed by the following criteria:

"Elevated waist circumference:
Men — Equal to or greater than 40 inches (102 cm)
Women — Equal to or greater than 35 inches (88 cm)
Elevated triglycerides:
Equal to or greater than 150 mg/dL
Reduced HDL (“good”) cholesterol:
Men — Less than 40 mg/dL
Women — Less than 50 mg/dL
Elevated blood pressure:
Equal to or greater than 130/85 mm Hg
Elevated fasting glucose:
Equal to or greater than 100 mg/dL"

-Source: American Heart Association Website
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